Berbagai Penelitian Gangguan Neurologi dan Gangguan Perilaku Pada Penderita Alergi

Berbagai Penelitian Gangguan Neurologi dan Gangguan Perilaku Pada Penderita Alergi

Setelah menghindari makanan tertentu seperti coklat, keju dan makanan sejenisnya perilaku emosi, gangguan tidur dan gangguan konsentrasi si Udin secara drastis membaik. Sementara pada beberapa kasus lainnya ternyata penderita gangguan migrain, vertigi, sakit kepala, kejang yang tidak dikertahui sebabnya saat melakukan penghindaran makanan tertentu ternyta membuat berbagai keluhannya membaik tanpa minum obat. Belakangan banyak penelitian mengungkapkan beberapa jenis makanan dengan mekanisme tertentu ternyata sangat mempengaruhi gangguan fungsi otak dan perilaku anak.

Setiap mendengar keluhan gangguan kulit karena makanan, pasti alergi dianggap sebagai biang penyebabnya. Masih banyak masyarakat awam bahkan beberapa kalangan klinisi menganggap semua gangguan kulit karena makanan sering disebut sebagai alergi makanan. Padahal sebenarnya reaksi yang disebabkan karena makanan bukan hanya karena reaksi alergi makanan. Istilah umum untuk reaksi yang tidak diinginkan terhadap makanan yang masuk saluran cerna manusia sering disebut sebagai reaksi simpang makanan. Reaksi tersebut dapat diperantarai oleh mekanisme yang bersifat imunologi, farmakologi, toksin, infeksi, idiosinkrasi, metabolisme serta neuropsikologis terhadap makanan. Reaksi simpang makanan bisa karena reaksi toksis seperti keracunan makanan. Selain itu bisa karena reaksi non toksis dengan melalui mekanisme imunologis seperti reaksi alergi makanan, penyakit celiac, gangguan absorbsi protein dan sindrom heiners. Sedangkan reaksi non toksis yang melalui mekanisme  non imunologis adalah intoleransi makanan, reaksi psikologis dan sebagainya. Dari semua reaksi yang tidak diinginkan terhadap makanan dan zat aditif makanan hanya sekitar 20% disebabkan karena alergi makanan.

Makanan, Leaky Gut dan Reaksi Simpang Makanan

Reaksi simpang makanan terjadi pada kelainan bawaan atau genetik seperti alergi makanan, penyakit celiac, intoleransi makanan dan sebagainya biasanya bersifat kronis atau berlangsung lama. Gangguan perilaku yang diduga bersifat genetik seperti Autism, ADHD dan gangguan perilaku lainnya juga sangat berkaitan dengan gangguan metabolisme makanan dan pemberian makanan tertentu. Banyak penelitian menunjukkan dengan melakukan penghindaran makanan tertentu maka gejala gangguan fungsi tubuh dan perilaku dapat diminimallkan.

Reaksi yang tidak diinginkan terhadap makanan seringkali terjadi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Sensitifitas terhadap makanan tertentu mengakibatkan gangguan  permeabilitas (kebocoran) pada saluran cerna atau leaky gut. Banyak penelitian terakhir mengungkapkan bahwa gangguan saluran cerna kronis dengan berbagai mekanisme imunopatofisiologis dan imunopatobiologis ternyata dapat mengganggu susunan saraf pusat manusia. Gangguan saluran cerna tersebut berkaitan gangguan penyerapan dan metabolisme makanan tertentu yang mengakibatkan gangguan beberapa sistem tubuh khususnya susunan saraf pusat atau otak.

Mekanisme bagaimana gangguan saluran cerna mengganggu system susunan saraf pusat khususnya fungsi otak masih belum banyak terungkap. Namun ada beberapa teori  mekanisme yang bisa menjelaskan, diantaranya adalah teori teori gangguan perut dan otak (Gut Brain Axis), pengaruh metabolisme sulfat, gangguan organ sasaran, dan pengaruh reaksi hormonal pada alergi.

Teori gangguan pencernaan  berkaitan dengan sistem susunan saraf pusat saat ini sedang menjadi perhatian utama. Teori inilah juga yang menjelaskan tentang salah satu mekanisme terjadinya gangguan perilaku seperti autism melalui Hipermeabilitas Intestinal atau dikenal dengan Leaky Gut Syndrome. Secara patofisiologi kelainan Leaky Gut Syndrome tersebut salah satunya disebabkan karena alergi makanan. Beberapa teori yang menjelaskan gangguan pencernaaan berkaitan dengan gangguan otak adalah :Kekurangan ensim Dipeptidalpeptidase IV (DPP IV).  pada gangguan pencernaan ternyata menghasilkan zat caseo morfin dan glutheo morphin (semacam morfin atau neurotransmiter palsu) yang mengganggu dan merangsang  otak. Teori pelepasan opioid (zat semacam opium) ikut berperanan dalam proses di atas. Hal tersebut juga sudah dibuktikan penemuan seorang ahli pada binatang anjing. Setelah dilakukan stimulasi tertentu pada binatang anjing, ternyata didapatkan kadar opioid yang meningkat disertai perubahan perilaku pada binatang tersebut.

Teori Enteric nervous brain juga mungkin yang mungkin bisa menjelaskan adanya kejadian abdominal epilepsi, yaitu adanya gangguan pencernaan khususnya nyeri perut yang dapat mengakibatkan epilepsi (kejang) pada anak atau orang dewasa. Beberapa laporan ilmiah menyebutkan bahwa gangguan pencernaan atau nyeri perut berulang pada penderita  berhubungan dengan kejadian epilepsi.

Alergi sebagai salah satu penyebab reaksi simpang makanan adalah suatu proses inflamasi. Reaksi alergi tidak hanya berupa reaksi cepat dan lambat tetapi juga merupakan proses inflamasi kronis yang kompleks. Berbagai zat hasil, proses alergi seperti sel mast, basofil, eosinofil, limfosit dan molekul seperti IgE, mediator sitokin, kemokin merupakan komponen yang berperanan dalam peradangan di organ tubuh manusia. Gejala klinis terjadi karena reaksi imunologik melalui pelepasan beberapa mediator tersebut dapat  mengganggu organ tertentu yang disebut organ sasaran. Sistem Susunan Saraf Pusat atau otak juga dapat sebagai organ sasaran. Otak adalah merupakan organ tubuh yang sensitif dan lemah. Sistem susunan saraf pusat adalah merupakan pusat koordinasi tubuh dan fungsi luhur. Maka bisa dibayangkan kalau otak terganggu maka banyak kemungkinan manifestasi klinik ditimbulkannya termasuk gangguan perilaku pada anak. Apalagi pada alergi sering terjadi proses peradangan lama yang kompleks.

Seperti pada  penderita intoleransi makanan, mungkin juga pada alergi makanan terdapat gangguan metabolisme sulfat pada tubuh. Gangguan Metabolisme sulfat juga diduga sebagai penyebab gangguan ke otak. Bahan makanan mengandung sulfur yang masuk ke tubuh melalui konjugasi fenol dirubah menjadi sulfat dibuang melalui urine. Pada penderita alergi yang mengganggu saluran cerna diduga juga terjadi proses gangguan metabolisme sulfur. Gangguan ini mengakibatkan gangguan pengeluaran sulfat melalui urine, metabolisme sulfur tersebut berubah menjadi sulfit. Sulfit inilah yang menggakibatkan gangguan  kulit (gatal) pada penderita. Diduga sulfit dan beberapa zat toksin inilah yang dapat menganggu fungsi otak. Gangguan tersebut mengakibatkan  zat kimiawi dan beracun tertentu yang tidak dapat dikeluarkan tubuh sehingga dapat mengganggu otak.

Keterkaitan hormon dengan peristiwa alergi dilaporkan oleh banyak  penelitian. Sedangkan perubahan hormonal itu sendiri tentunya dapat mengakibatkan manifestasi klinik tersendiri. Para peneliti melaporkan pada penderita alergi terdapat penurunan hormon seperti kortisol, metabolik. Hormon progesteron dan adrenalin tampak cenderung meningkat bila proses alergi itu timbul. Perubahan hormonal tersebut ternyata dapat mempengaruhi fungsi susunan saraf pusat atau otak . Diantaranya dapat mengakibatkan keluhan gangguan emosi, gampang marah, kecemasan, panik, sakit

Manifestasi klinis Gangguan Neoruanatomis

Gangguan susunan saraf pusat atau otak tersebut dapat berupa neuroanatomis dan neurofisiologis. Gangguan neuroanatomis karena makanan biasanya sudah tampak sejak bayi. Pada bayi tampak lebih sensitif, sering mudah kaget dengan rangsangan suara atau cahaya, gemetar terutama tangan, kaki dan bibir, bahkan sampai epilepsi atau kejang. Pada anak yang lebih besar tampak  sering sakit kepala, vertogo, migrain, nigtagmus (mata juling) atau ticks (mata sering berkedip). Reaksi makanan pada penyakit celiac gangguan neurologis yang sering dilaporkan adalah epilepsi, myoclonicataxia (Ramsay-Hunt syndrome), cerebellar ataxia, spinocerebellar dan cerebellar, peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy,brainstem encephalitis, dan chronic progressive leukoencephalopathy.

Selain gangguan neuroanatomis reaksi simpang makanan dapat mengganggu fungsi neurofisiologis seperti gangguan konsentrasi, gangguan emosi, gangguan tidur, keterlambatan bicara, gangguan konsentrasi, ADHD hingga memperberat gejala Autisme.

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